Bird–building collisions in the United States: Estimates of annual mortality and species vulnerability
"Based on 23 studies, we estimate that between 365 and 988 million birds
(median = 599 million) are killed annually by building collisions in the U.S.,
with roughly 56% of mortality at low-rises, 44% at residences, and, 1% at high-rises."
Understanding the value of imperfect science from national estimates of bird mortality from window collisions
"The main drawback is the inherent and somewhat unquantifiable bias of using small-scale studies to scale up to a national estimate. The direct benefits include development of new methodologies for creating the estimates, an explicit treatment of known biases with acknowledged uncertainty in the final estimate, and the novel results. Other overarching benefits are that these types of papers are catalysts for improving all aspects of the science of estimates and for policies that must respond to the new information."